Life Cycle Cost of Self-Supply Water in Metro City, Indonesia

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This research. led by the University of Technology, Sydney's Institute for Sustainable Futures, evaluates risks and opportunities associated with on-premises, self-supply water sources and how they might support or undermine transitions towards safely-managed services for poor households across Asia-Pacific. The work focuses on areas lacking piped water, including densely-populated low-income urban areas in Indonesia and small climate-affected islands in Vanuatu.


Self-supply of drinking water is implemented in areas where the coverage of piped water services is inadequate, low incomes residents, and poor performance of piped water supply. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is a method of evaluating all costs incurred and is used to track the financing of the drinking water sector. This study analyses LCC of self-supply water in the Metro City, Indonesia. A field survey was conducted using a questionnaire in October 2020 for households in Metro City that captured information on costs incurred for household water use. It was observed that self-supply water uses in Metro City accounts for 92.86.30% of all water supplies. The average recurrent expenditure is Rp.224,344/ year with mean of capital cost is Rp.275,273. Most expensive cost for self-supply is borehole. High cost of borehole due deeper groundwater source, borehole use more pump electricity and higher drilling cost. This funding for self-supply water is carried out independently by the households. These results highlighted the importance of self-financing for the water supply sector. Increased reliability and safety of self-supply require a better awareness of the costs and benefits of developing water sources. Furthermore, self-supply water requires better governance to achieve safe water access.


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Life Cycle Cost of Self-Supply Water in Metro City
Ikhtiar Jauhari, Tri Edhi Budhi Soesilo, Cindy R Priadi
E3S Web Conf. 277 06001 (2021)
DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/202127706001


This resource is an output of our Water for Women research project in the first phase, Transitioning to safely-managed water services in self-supply contexts: Risks and  opportunities for vulnerable populations in urban Indonesia and climate-affected Vanuatu. 

Policy and strategy

Knowledge and Learning is central to Water for Women. It is a key priority of all partners and positions the Fund as an important contributor to global knowledge development and sharing in the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector. Fund generated evidence, centred on innovative, climate-resilient and gender and socially inclusive WASH, supports partners to program for long-term impact. It also provides the basis to influence sector-wide development policy and practice globally, particularly around these cross-cutting themes.

Continual reflection, collaborative learning, knowledge development and exchange are important elements of Water for Women, which combined with effective programming, support partners to lead practice globally and raise the bar on climate-resilient, gender and socially inclusive WASH research, analysis, design and program delivery.

In the first phase of Water for Women (2018-2022), our civil society organisation and research partners developed and shared a wealth of resources through their projects. You can explore a selection of these resource highlights here, and how they link to the building blocks for climate-resilient WASH, drawn from our report, Knowledge and Practice Gaps in Climate Resilient Inclusive WASH.

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